Fall of Abbasid Caliphate: Through the Lens of Ordinary Muslims

Al-Mustansiriya School.
Baghdad, Iraq – 21 April, 2020: photo for Al-Mustansiriya School in Baghdad city in Iraq, which showing Some windows and doors built in the old Abbasid style.

The Abbasid caliphate is considered the golden age of Islam. It also paved the way for many achievements for Muslims. But its fall was quite inevitable. Like every great empire arose and disintegrated, the Abbasid caliphate also has the same type of historical chronology. It took hold after overthrowing the Umayyad dynasty, and Fatimid and Ottoman Empire later overthrew it. Many other sociological factors are also responsible for the fall of the Abbasid caliphate.

Shift to Baghdad and Bureaucracy

Arab Muslims primarily controlled the caliphate. But, when the capital was shifted to Baghdad, the Arab hold was lifted. Furthermore, the bureaucratic system influenced by Baghdad was enforced by common people. This critical event proved to be an initiating factor for the decline of the caliphate.

The unjust Social Structure

In the last decades of the caliphate, the living conditions of ordinary people became miserable. The social disturbance was mainly because of war and foreign invasions. However, it is also said that the caliphate was not just in various dimensions and that ultimately led to the fall of the Abbasid caliphate.

Separatist Dynasties

The separatist dynasties were one of the main reasons for the fall of the caliphate. People affected by wars and foreign invasions were poor and marginalised, who were attacked by Mongols or Crusaders. Another reason for separatist dynasties was ideological that caused the disintegration of the empire and become the prime reason for the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate.

Revolts and chaos

The caliphate was controlled by people who, due to the power struggle and collection of wealth, got engaged in many evil practices. The empire was so big that weak leaders could not control it. That weak power-hungry leadership inflicted many bad policies like increasing taxes and inflation. It also brought many bad agrarian policies: that created hunger and famine, social disturbance, and chaos. People started revolting against the government. Hence, that led to the fall of Abbasid caliphate

Internal rivalry

Many have said that the internal political scenario of the caliphate was quite struggling. Many times, it has been noted that many incompetent leaders succeeded the caliphate. The internal rivalry brought disorder and chaos. The power struggle made the government incompetent. The method of succession was also unorganized and improper. Hence, many factors, including internal political turmoil, caused the fall of the Abbasid caliphate.

The Mongolian invasions

The Mongols were blamed for putting the final nail in the coffin of the Abbasid caliphate. Mongol hordes invaded the capital city. They also destroyed the cities after cities. They killed the caliph and left no stone unturned to destroy the caliphate. Ultimately, the caliphate downgraded and fell due to back to back blows.

Conclusion

In short, from the lens of common Muslims, there were multiple factors involved in the caliphate’s downfall. Some of them were internal political problems, wars, weak leadership, hunger, and famine. Moreover, the Mongolian invasion and separatist movements made the final blows that resulted in the Abbasid caliphate’s fall.