How the Holy Quran was collected and written
The Holy Quran, the Glorious scripture was revealed to Prophet Muhammad PBUH. Companions RA learned it by heart and memorized it, and later on, it was written on various material things.
1. Prophet Muhammad PBUH
Companions of the Prophet PBUH used to memorize the revelation, and Muhammad PBUH also wrote the passages of the Quran on different writing materials such as leather and leaves. Prophet PBUH used to watch the recorded message and make sure that each word is in order. Whenever an ayah was revealed, he (saw) informed the Companions about the name of the relevant Surah and where it was to be placed in the Qur’an.
2. Battle of Yarmook
Yarmook is a place located in the north of Saudi Arabia, where the Muslims had a war with Byzantine. A lot of companions of the Prophet PBUH were martyred here, especially those who had memorized the Quran. In this scenario, Umar RA presented a plan to Abu Bakar RA to collect Quran because he quickly perceived that if in the same way companions died, there will be no one left who would know the entire Quran
3. Abu Bakar RA
Abu Bakar RA was not willing to act upon Umar RA plan and said how I could do something which Prophet PBUH has not done, but eventually, Umar RA persisted and convinced him, and He (Abu Bakar RA) accepted, they went to Zaid Ibn Sabit RA and told him that we want you to head this project or you to be the manager of this program; thus he accepted.
4. Zaid Ibn Sabit RA
He was an expert in rules regarding necessary actions. It is said that he was among the top Ulema and Qaris. He was an official interpreter and translator for the Prophet Muhammad PBUH
Abu Bakar RA ordered him and said,” You are a young man who is wise and trustworthy. And you used to write the revelation for the Prophet, collect the Qur’an, and compile it.” He had spent much time with Muhammad PBUH.
Those who knew a portion of the Holy Quran visited and reported it to the committee. Companions in the committee would hear it and used to check it. The verses and chapters were written in the same order as issued by Messenger of Allah. The person who knew a portion of the Quran would present two witnesses who saw him hear the verses directly from the blessed Prophet’s mouth.
Mushaf means written verses, and it was compiled after all the companions agreed in a general meeting. This Mushaf was sent to Umar RA. After his death, this book was passed on to his daughter Hafsa RA who was also the wife of Messenger of Allah. Afterward issue of dialect arose in the time of Usman RA. Usman RA suggested that dialect of Quraish should be preferred
In a nutshell, the Holy Quran was collected and compiled under the phenomenal supervision of the Messenger of Allah and his companions.