Letters of the Prophet to the kings
The Prophet (SAW) gave a lot of written invitations towards Islam in the form of letters as well as oral invitations. Many such letters have been discussed in the books of Hadith. He sent letters of invitation to Islam to many great kings of that time. The following are some of the famous incidents of sending letters of the Prophet (SAW) to the kings from the books of Hadith and History.
Many of them embrace Islam, many respect the letter, and many disrespect the letter. The way one treats the letter has the same consequences later on.
1. Letters of the Prophet to Heraclius
Heraclius was the ruler of the Byzantine Empire. The Prophet (SAW) sent a letter to Heraclius through Dahiya Kalbi (R). The language of the letter was as follows-
“Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim. From the servant and messenger of Allah to Heraclius, the chief of Rome. Peace be upon those who follow the guidance. Then I call you to Islam. Accept Islam and be free from all kinds of evils, Allah will give you a double reward. (Because of believing in Jesus (AS) and Muhammad (SAW)), if you disagree, you will be responsible for the sins of your subjects.
O People of the Scripture, come to what is equal between us and you. That is, we do not worship anyone except Allah. And we do not associate anything with Him, and we do not take any of us as lord besides Allah. But if they turn away, then say, “Bear witness that we are Muslims.”
After receiving the letter, Heraclius asked an Arab man to come to the court for details. Coincidentally, Abu Sufyan, the main enemy of Islam, was found at that time. He was summoned to the emperor’s court and asked some questions. The emperor informed Abu Sufyan of everything and said, “O Abu Sufyan, if what you have said is true, then there is no doubt that he is the true Prophet of Allah. I believe the soil under my feet will soon be in his hands. I was aware that a messenger would come. But I did not know that he would appear in Arabia. If I had the chance, I would have come to his service and blessed myself by washing his holy feet.”
2. Sending letters to the Persian emperor
Then the Prophet (SAW) wanted to send a letter to the Persian emperor inviting him to Islam. He sent an invitation to Islam to him through Abdullah bin Hujhaifa (R) and said to Hujhaifa, “You will ask Munzir, the ruler of Bahrain, to deliver the letter to Kisra.” Munzir did so. The letter sent by the Prophet (SAW) was as follows:
“Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim. From the Messenger of Allah to Caesar, the chief of Persia. Peace be upon those who follow the guidance of Allah, believe in Allah and His Messenger, and bear witness that none is worthy of worship except Allah and that He has sent me as a Messenger to warn the people of the world. You accept Islam, you will be liberated. Otherwise, you will be responsible for the sins of your fire-worshiping people. ”
The Persian emperor read the letter and said, who wrote the letter to me like this? First the name of Allah, then the name of the sender, then the name of the emperor. What an insult! This insult cannot be tolerated. Saying this, he tore the letter and tore it into pieces. And as a result, within a few days, Allah also tore his kingdom to pieces.
3. Sending letters to Muqawakis
The Prophet (SAW) sent a letter of invitation to the King of Egypt, Muqawakis, through the eminent Companion Hatib ibn Abi Balta’a (R). The letter was as follows-
“Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim. On behalf of the servant of Allah and His Messenger Muhammad, to the King of Egypt, Muqawakis. Then I call you to Islam. Be free from all kinds of evils by accepting Islam. Allah will give you a double reward. If you disagree, you will be responsible for the sins of your subjects.
O People of the Scripture, come to what is equal between us and you. That is, we worship none but Allah. And we do not associate anything with Him, and we do not accept any of us as Lord except Allah. But if they turn away, then say, “Bear witness that we are Muslims.”
After receiving the letter, Muqawakis did not openly convert to Islam, but he acknowledged the prophethood of the Prophet (SAW) and happily sent two virgin maids, Maria and Sirin, as gifts. In addition, the king sent five kibbutz clothes and one thousand dinars as gifts.
4. Letters of the Prophet to Najjashi
King Najjashi of Abyssinia had already received the invitation to Islam from Jafar Ibn Abi Talib (R) and accepted the Prophethood of the Prophet (SAW). In the 7th Hijri, the Prophet (SAW) sent a letter to Amr ibn Umaiyah (R) at the state level, inviting him to Islam as an envoy to the court of King Najjashi. The language of the letter was as follows-
“Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim. On behalf of Muhammad to Najjashi, the emperor of Abyssinia. Greetings to you. I praise Allah that there is no god but He. He is the only owner, the holy, the giver of peace and security, the shelter, the almighty. I bear witness that Isa Ibn Maryam is the Spirit of Allah and His Word; Which Allah threw into Mary’s womb. Mary then conceived Jesus and created him by the Spirit. The way Adam (AS) was created. I am calling you to Allah. He has no partner, obey Him and believe in what I have brought, and follow it. I am a messenger from Allah. I call you and your armies to Allah. Peace be upon those who follow the path of guidance.
Najjashi read the letter and publicly proclaimed Islam and replied to a letter to Amr ibn Umaiyah.
Thus, the Prophet (SAW) sent letters inviting the King of Yamamah, the Emperor of Bahrain, and the Emperor of Oman. Through the sending of these letters by the Prophet (SAW), the message of Islam spread all over the world and the news of the imminent emergence of Islam spread around.