Mamluk Sultan Ruknuddin Baybars I
Al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī, or known as Baybars I, was born in Kipchak, namely in northern Black sea in 1223. Famous for being fierce in battles, he died in 1277 by poison after 17 years of military achievements against Persian Mongols and the french Crusaders. Born as a slave, notably, Baybars worked his way until he reached the position of being a Mamluk Sultan. He ruled both Egypt and Syria. Known for his military and administrative reforms, he was behind the transformation of Syria and Egypt. Including building citadels, renovating fortresses, creating bridges, and many more. He united both Muslim countries and defeated his most prominent enemies similar to his sole rolemodel, Salah el din.
Early life of Baybars I
Born as a kipchak turk, Baybars I was sold as a slave in his early life after the invasion of his own town in 1242 by the Mongols. Later, Baybars I was recruited by the Egyptian Ayyubid Dynasty for being a turkish speaker. Which was highly important back then. Being trained in Egypt, Baybars showed incredible capabilities which made him stand out compared to others. That he became the commander of the bodyguard group of Sultan al-Ṣāliḥ Najm al-Dīn Ayyūb. His first notable victory was in Al-Mansoura in 1250. Where he defeated the French Crusaders. Known for his bravery, he went further with murdering Sultans, such as Turan Shah.
Baybars I in power
When he finally came to power after assassinating Sultan Qutuz, he was quickly recognized for his military ambitions. His works included building new citadels, cargo, arsenals, and worships. After unting Syria and Egypt, ending Ayyubid’s reign was crucial for Baybars I. This led him to seize their most important three towns. After a series of violent fights with the French Crusaders armies, Baybars’ seizure of their territories ended their fate. He switched his focus to those who invaded his town a long time ago, referring to the Mongols. After nine battles, Baybars I succeeded in protecting the Islamic east. later on, he turned to their main allies, the Armenians, and destroyed their main cities. In syria, he defeated an islmaic sect known as the Assassins.
One of the major achievement was his diplomatic relationship with the Byzantine empire which resulted in allowing the Egyptian merchants to sail through the Turkish rivers. Additionally, he was interested in building schools, mosques, postal services, etc. Furthermore, to protect the islamic nature of states, Baybars prohibited alcohol in 1271 and implemented the chief Justice to represent the 4 distinguishable Islamic school of thoughts.
Despite his known image of being a strong and fierce warrior, Baybars was a diplomatic politician and a sporty man. He practiced polo, hunting, horsing and many more. Most importantly, he was a strict muslim despite anything. Baybars was keen on protecting Islamic East alongside the Islamic morals and values.
Sadly, this magnificent story came to an end when he died by mistake through poison, which marked the ending of a marvellous warrior known for his infinite capabilities.
(Written by freelancer Yara Lotfy)