Technological Achievements in the Abbasid Caliphate

World Contributor
Technological advancements
ID 143376689 © Rasoul Ali |

The Abbasid dynasty foundation was laid by Abu al-Abbas, who lead the revolution in 750 CE. From the very beginning, technological knowledge advanced and flourished remarkably in their period. These advancements in knowledge were equally applauded by Muslims as well as by the west. Abbasid period touched every field and made tremendous improvements in technology. Moreover, Baghdad being their centre, attracted the world scholars.

Therefore, the famous house of wisdom cannot be ignored at all, where scholars from all walks of life used to participate. Hence, the world witnessed the following advancements in the era of the Abbasid Caliphate.


Astronomy was highly valued in the era because it was related to religion, prayer timings travelling, and navigation. Al-Tusi and Al-Farghani, two prominent scholars who worked on astronomy, wrote various books. Famous scholar Ibrahim al Fazari worked on the usage of the armillary sphere, which is used for the motion of heavenly bodies. Later on, his son worked on stars. Moreover, Scholars found the way of calculating celestial distances, the perimeter of earth, and the moon’s diameter. Beside it, Muslims worked on trigonometric ratios and formulated new rules and regulations; a table of tangent values was formulated. Some scholars worked on the geographical method of Qibla’s finding, while others took a keen interest in understanding the atmospheric phenomenon.

Medical and Surgery field

Muslims translated Greek books on medicines as Baghdad had a translating centre. Based on these translations, Muslims developed new methods to improve medicines. They make use of herbal and other natural materials and made exceptional advancement in the medical field. Encyclopedia of medicine was made, the gravity of tuberculosis was discussed, its adverse effects were explained, and they worked on child development as well. Alzahrawi invented many instruments like pincers, catheters, forceps, scalpels, lancets, specula, and cauteries. Later on, Western scholars followed his techniques for centuries, like the use of cold sponges for pain reduction. Moreover, Muslim Scholar Ibn Masawayh wrote mostly in Arabic and composed the earliest medical treatises on ophthalmology. Doctor and philosopher Avicenna wrote the Canon of Medicine, which helped physicians diagnose dangerous diseases like cancer.


Muslim scientists like Ibn Haytham offered his services in many fields, he, for the first time, explained vision and vision perception. He also discovered the reflection process and elaborated that vision takes place when light is fall and bounces back to the eye, thus telling how the eye sees; this phenomenon helped in the creation of a camera.

Paper Industry

Muslims worked on paper industry and flourished by making a paper mill in Baghdad that helped in making book shops, book industries, libraries, and even private libraries. Learning and imparting education was made a mission. This paper industry played a key role in the preservation and spread of knowledge among Muslims.


In a nutshell, no one can deny this fact that Muslims ruled the whole world in this golden era in science and technology and shaped the word. They valued knowledge, learned it, and worked for its advancement. Hence, Muslims in that area rightly had pondered on this universe, its natural laws, and discovered those secretes necessary for the advancement in knowledge, especially in technology.

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